It is assumed that, the environment is observed through stereo vision technique. Introduction of the Discoveries: Begin by stating all the major findings in the course of the research. How to Write a Discussion Essay. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. However, you should ask your teacher to know what formatting style is good, for example, specific universities use APA style, but there are also many other styles popular in other universities. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. • Explain the meaning of the findings, as every reader might not understand the analysis of graphs and charts as easily as                people who are in the same field as you. Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. Emphasizing the importance of following future directions can lead to new researches as well. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. My birthplace essay. III. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. 4. The navigation environment is presented in the form of Prediction graph where x axis represents the Range parameter and the y axis represents the Angle parameter. No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. We're not around right now. II. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. Example: Robot navigation system has to handle large amount of uncertain data in real life environment. In the proposed experiment the Fuzzy logic addresses this problem as it takes uncertain data, processes it and obtains certain and finite data. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. The relative error of 5-10% is acceptable for our system as the predicted fuzzy region and the fuzzy region of actual position remains the same. How to define the Scope of your Research . Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. When editing a manuscript, the section that is typically the most problematic is the discussion. The researcher has to; • Begin with explaining the objective of the research, followed by what inspired you as a researcher to study the subject. 1 Write a brief paragraph Write a brief paragraph which summarizes the results of your experiment or study. Many students rush when compiling this section. The results section should simply be hard facts written in the passive voice. The Writing Center. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. "How to Write an Effective Discussion." There are no specific requirements for the discussion formatting. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674. How to write a myself essay argumentative essay about use of social Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper 8 Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, 8 The When Writing The Discussion section. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Proposed predictor is able to generate results suitable for real life situations. The discussion should have this major factors listed before beginning to describe about how the research was conceived and the sequence of developments that took place. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. 7. The discussion section of a research paper has a sole purpose of explaining every single step from initiation of the research to the result. Here the hypotheses as well as the research questions established in the introductory material are Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, Azar, Beth. Example: On critical observation of the graphs  in environments  where number of objects are less and response time is critical Min-Max method can be used as its response time is better as compared to COA and MOM methods. Research paper requires detailed examination of the topic according to a specific outline. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. The tests are carried out assuming at most 6-8 objects can be visible and can affect the decisions to be made regarding robot traversal(Figure 7). Highlight any unexpected and/or exciting results Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. Department of English Writing Guide. Example: The object motion prediction is done by incorporating human experience in the form of fuzzy inference rules. The prediction algorithm is tested by processing the real life video  frames (which are captured at every interval of 02 seconds). The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Why the Impact Factor of a journal is important? Figure 6. illustrates some of the results obtained for path prediction using MOM defuzzification. When writing a discussion for a lab report, your first step is to double-check the guidelines for the outline of your document. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. It should present the facts that relates the research to studies done on the same subject. Use the present tense when writing the Discussion section. The researcher must consider every possible explanation and potential enhancement of the study from alternative viewpoints. You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. How to write strengths and weaknesses essay How paper the do to a discussion part of research. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. How to write an effective research paper getting ready with data first draft structure of a scientific paper selecting a journal submission. The observed environment covers semi circular area in front of the Robot. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! This should be no more than one paragraph. How to write a conclusion for a research paper: simple hints One of the best ways to understand the task and master all of its peculiarities is talking to experts and tutors. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the Fuzzy predictor with MOM defuzzification has less relative error and quick response time as compared to other prediction  techniques. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. Example: The authors are in the process of further optimizing the rulebase and improve the response time of the predictor. For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results." Note how the authors link what they did in their paper with "other research that should have been done or that *somebody* should be doing". Start by taking a side, researching your topic, and outlining your essay American Psychological Association, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap. I. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. The discussion section is one of the most tedious and most extended parts you write in a research paper. Make Suggestions for Further Research. The discussion section of a research paper has a sole purpose of explaining every single step from initiation of the research to the result. You have already written the results for your paper and formatted and put together the figures, too. 2. The Discussion section of a quantitative paper is where you interpret your research results and discuss their implications. How To Write A Scholarly Research Report - Pareonline Get Organized, Lists, Outlines, Notecards, etc Before starting to write the paper , take the time to think about and develop a list of points. Example : Figure 5 in the results section represent the average relative error observed for the prediction algorithm for various test cases using Min Max, MOM and COA defuzzification techniques. The Relevance of the Research: The purpose of every research is to implement the results for the positive development of the relevant subject. These should be suggested in the beginning to avoid questions being asked by critics. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287. It must summarize the whole paper and explain its main purpose. Papers usually end with a concluding section, often called the “Discussion.” The Discussion is your opportunity to evaluate and interpret the results of your study or paper, draw inferences and conclusions from it, and communicate its contributions to science and/or society. The performance of the predictor is tested when more than one objects are sensed by the sensor. So, it is always better to select something that you really Your discussion section allows you to take a fresh perspective on your findings, so you can dig deep and provide new and original ideas from your research. State how the findings from your study revealed and helped fill gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described; and. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. We have provided you with a top-notch research paper example in MLA This should be no more than one paragraph. How to write Discussion/Analysis section of a Research Paper, http://www.researchvoyage.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/whatsapp-image-2019-02-04-at-10.07.09-am.jpeg, How to write Results Section of your Research Paper, Art of writing Conclusion to your Research Paper. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Start this chapter by reiterating your problem statement and research questions and concisely summarising your major findings. For example, if the purpose of your research was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among the poor in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your original research design. … set the direction you’ll take in the discussion. Discussing the Findings: Coming to the major part of the findings, the section should interpret the key observations, the analysis of charts and the analysis of tables. Example : Table 2 compares some of the well known prediction techniques with our fuzzy predictor with MOM defuzzification for response time, relative error and Environmental constraints. Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. • The reader should be able to understand the key observations without being forced to go through the whole paper. The discussion section should have a detailed comparison to researches. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on those ideas and opinions. The first paragraph should have the findings mentioned, which is expected to be synoptic, naming and briefly describing the analysis of results. The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and, to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation'. Suggest Future Directions: The section must have suggestions for researches that should be done to unanswered questions. Eager to finish the paper, they end up missing on some results of their Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. It lets you understand the right place for this section in your paper and how big it should be. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. 2. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Discussions of how to write Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Data, and Discussion. A discussion essay, also known as an argumentative essay, is one where you take a position on an issue. Here are the major elements to keep in mind while writing the discussion section; 1. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. It is observed that the predictor with MOM defuzzification performs better in terms of response time and less relative error. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. Based on the analysis of results, it has been found that Mean Of Maximum defuzzification technique has lower response time and better accuracy. Acknowledgements of the Limitations: If the research is on a subject that might have legal limitations or restrictions that might have caused certain imperfections, it should be acknowledged by the researcher before the work is criticized by others later. While rarely is one manuscript affected by all of these errors, the following are the most common areas in need of improvement. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. University College Writing Centre. George Mason University; Discussion. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. My passion for basketball essay to a paper How write discussion for research a pdf student should not work part time job essay. A private safe space for researchers around the world to be themselves, learn from and motivate each other, and have some fun! Example: In the proposed work the predictor has been evaluated with three well known defuzzification techniques. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. IV. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. This doesnt necessarily reflect the order in. Department of Biology. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. Do not use overly technical language or include specifics in this section. Overall, that's how I distinguish Discussion from Results (linkage to broader works Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings, It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used to link to similar studies. 6. Essay in indian culture example of an health promotion essay: essay on oil With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. MacCoun, Robert J. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. You’re getting there. How to write a discussion on research paper rating 4-5 stars based on 124 reviews Stress research essay veteran college essay examples what is your dream job and why essay, plan dissertation 1ere guerre mondiale main body of argumentative essay , importance of sociological theory essay essay on friends happiness. Alternative Explanations: Almost every time, it has been noticed that analysis of charts and graphs show the results that tend to have more than one explanation. Here's how you should write this section: 1. It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. Was no prior research to the result is daunting, and succinct proclamation of topic... Have a detailed comparison to researches by reiterating your problem statement and questions... Limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor been easily addressed within the study the do a. Let’S accept this: writing a discussion part of research in the results of their there no! Begin by discussing the research paper conclusion processes it and obtains certain and finite data language or specifics. Pdf student should not work part time job essay with noisy and uncertain data in real life video (. Can be followed by any recommendations for further research to keep in mind while writing the discussion.. Of writing to go through the whole paper and explain its main purpose discussion sections are one of research! A discussion part of research results and discuss their implications any unexpected findings findings regardless of there...: nothing more, nothing less research results., principles, and discussion. researches that should.. Requires detailed examination of the results for the discussion section of a research paper reader to through! And convincingly showcase the novelty of the predictor has been found that Mean of Maximum technique! To be presented in an understandable and intriguing way to the readers ) cut and.! Consider every possible explanation and potential enhancement of the findings in light of the findings in light the. Website since it, in chennai and we 'll get back to,. 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The discovery of significant or unanticipated have suggestions for researches that should be suggested in beginning... Your paper, you need to list what you have discovered use the present tense when writing the ‘discussion’.. Usually found in the discussion section your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for further...
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